As noted immediately above in the discussion on dedicated industrial park legislation, some of the reasons such laws may be required are in order to make the industrial parks’ legal compliance obligations and interface with government oversight agencies more efficient. Specific mention was made, in that context, of the value of establishing one-stop shops for the delivery of administrative services to business. Indeed, dedicated staff from each relevant line ministry or agency should be assigned to a one-stop shop to offer a seamlessly-integrated administrative services package to investors. Whether such enabling legislation is adopted or such one- stop shops are established through sub-statutory and administrative means, such as inter-agency memoranda of understanding and service-level agreements and their usefulness and importance to investors are certain. Some examples of industrial park one-stop shop programmes may be found in Box 16, below:
Industrial parks host a wide range of stakeholders. Efficient and coordinated operation of the industrial park is often a challenge in this context, due to the diversity of these actors and their interests, and their different levels of involvement in the industrial park. An industrial park one-stop shop with proper decision-making power is a good solution for providing a single point of contact to facilitate the various stakeholders’ requirements, particularly for regulatory compliance. It improves administrative efficiency in obtaining necessary services and government approvals, as well as simplifying the associated procedures. If the park operator was a private entity, it would usually be unable to provide these services, beyond a “front office” facilitation function. The types of services provided by one-stop shops, and the type of institutions represented, vary depending on national laws and the characteristics of each industrial park. Around the world, the following services may be provided by an industrial park’s one-stop shop:
An industrial park can be developed and operated by the government – at the national, state or local level; by private enterprise – whether by a construction company developer or consortium, or manufacturers association; or by some sort of public-private partnership (PPP) – for instance through a joint venture between government and private enterprise. Different government ministries, public agencies and state-owned development and facilities management corporations regularly invest in industrial parks, given the public interest they present for the economy.
The developer or owner, whatever its ownership structure, pays for the initial development of a park and then, during the operations phase, leases or sells the developed and serviced plots and/or factory shells to private firms in order to recoup its costs. Furthermore, regardless of the industrial parks’ ownership model, the private sector invariably plays a vital role in them, both as the parks’ residents, and also very often as the design consultants, construction contractors and manager of public projects. This participation by private firms provides critical expertise and, in so doing, reduces government risk.
Where the operator is a separate entity from the site’s owner or developer, the industrial park owner or developer is responsible for establishing and defining the industrial park operator’s specific responsibilities, to be enshrined in an “Operator Agreement”.
Responsible labour relations management has a direct influence on the sustainability of industrial parks as it affects the size, morale and productivity of the workforce. Due emphasis should therefore be given to ILO Labour Standards, in particular, the following aspects of labour relations management:
In order to define industrial park success, it is necessary to establish a reference framework as for examplea set of goals against which to measure performance, along with key performance indicators (KPIs). KPIs can be defined for an entire industrial park, an individual facility, or various processes at the park or an individual facility.
In line with the core ‘inclusive and sustainable industrial development’ (ISID) principles, UNIDO guidelines for industrial parks set forth three indicator categories comprising a total of 13 key industrial park performance indicators: economic performance indicators, social performance indicators and environmental performance indicators.
Social performance indicators relating to the ISID pillar “creating shared prosperity”:
Environmental performance indicators relating to the ISID pillar: “safeguarding the environment”:
* Indicator inappropriate to the evaluation of new sites that are not yet fully-operational (the remaining, italicized and non-asterisked indicators being more appropriate, with minor input adjustments).